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Beginning by considering sport in relation to the pre-cultural studies tradition of cultural commentary, The Uses of Sport then moves on to a critical engagement.
Table of contents



The category playing situation accounts for variables that describe the situation in which the event occurred. These can be variables that describe the interactions between teammates and opposition players. Examples of this are studies that analysed the interactions between attacking and defensive line shapes and movements when identifying key variables [ 17 , 54 , 62 , 72 ]. Similarly, some studies analysed the interactions between opposing players in contact [ 16 , 60 , 61 , 73 , 74 ]. As this category was specific to events, and physical demands studies mainly described the demands of entire matches and not events, only studies related to performance and injuries were reviewed in this category.

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The Uses of Sport

The authors also acknowledge there are restrictions and limitations in including too many variables in an analysis. Many journals have word count restrictions, which impacts on the number of variables a study can report on. A study may, thus, have initially included variables in their analysis, but not included them in the publication as the findings were insignificant.

Authors may also divide their study up into multiple papers, and unless read together the context of their findings may be lost. A primary purpose of video analysis is to provide individuals involved in sports with objective and reliable information which can be used to inform practice [ 26 ]. For example, a study by Ortega and colleagues identified the differences between winning and losing teams in 58 Six Nations games [ 75 ].

They found that winning teams scored more points and lost fewer set-pieces, compared to losing teams [ 75 ]. As most teams set themselves out to out-score the opposition, as well as win all of their set-pieces, the practical applications offered by the study offers very little applicable information to coaches. However, from a research perspective, the study has identified three areas for future studies to investigate; how teams score points, win line-outs and win scrums. A series of studies by Wheeler and colleagues [ 72 , 76 ], analysed the skills that led to tackle breaks, an outcome identified as an effective means of scoring points in rugby union [ 72 ].

The key skills associated with tackle breaks were fending and evasive manoeuvres.

Background

The aim of this paper was to provide a critical review of video analysis research in rugby union. The review identified a large disparity in the type of data gathered in the studies and the level of statistical analysis conducted within the studies. There was a large range in the sample sizes of the studies. The review raised concerns over the generalisability of the findings used in the majority of the studies reviewed and recommends that researchers adopt the practice of sample size calculations to ensure that studies are adequately powered.

Half of the studies appraised did not fully define the variables used in their analyses. There were also differing definitions of a variable between studies. These findings highlight the need for a consensus on the definitions of variables used in rugby union research so that the findings from different studies are more comparable i.

Finally, an aim of video analysis research is to provide information to coaches and practitioners to inform practice [ 26 ]. This information should be useful to a coach by not only answering the question of what happens in a match but also how it happens [ 77 ]. To assist in this process, it is suggested that researchers in this field start by developing research questions to identify the what , to provide novel findings used to develop the research questions to understand the how. This process will allow researchers to provide coaches with practical information, based on the results of how studies, which is useful and applicable to develop practice.

Positional demands of professional rugby. Eur J Sport Sci. Arnold P, Grice M. The economic impact of rugby world cup In: London; World Rugby. World rugby: consolidated financial statement. Financial year ended 31 December S Afr J Sport Med. Tackle injuries in professional rugby union.

Am J Sports Med [Internet]. Science and rugby union. J Sports Sci. Temporal pattern analysis and its applicability in sport: an explanation and exemplar data. The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports. Sport Med. Notational analysis of sport: systems for better coaching and performance in sport. Oxon: Psychology Press; Video analysis of the mechanisms of shoulder dislocation in four elite rugby players. J Orthop Sci. Routines, rituals, and rugby: case study of a world class goal kicker.

INTRODUCTION

Sport Psychol [Internet]. Territorial gain dynamics regulates success in attacking sub-phases of team sports. Psychol Sport Exerc. The relationship between physical fitness and game behaviours in rugby union players. The importance of rugby game-related statistics to discriminate winners and losers at the elite level competitions in close and balanced games. Int J Perform Anal Sport.

A statistical analysis of tackling performance during international rugby union matches from Tackler characteristics associated with tackle performance in rugby union. Defensive strategies in rugby union. Percept Mot Skills. A retrospective evaluation of team performance indicators in rugby union. Diedrick E, van Rooyen MK. Line break situations in international rugby. Laird P, Lorimer R. An examination of try scoring in rugby union: a review of international rugby statistics.

J Chem Inf Model. Ruck frequency as a predictor of success in the rugby World Cup tournament. Mackenzie R, Cushion C. Performance analysis in football: a critical review and implications for future research. Grant MJ, Booth A. A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Inf Libr J. How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews?


  1. Background.
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Empirical study. Health Technol Assess Rockv. Improving grounded theory research in sport and exercise psychology: further reflections as a response to Mike weed. Psychol sport Exerc. Elsevier Ltd. Research methods for sports performance analysis. Oxon: Routledge; Sport competition as a dynamical self-organizing system. Bishop D. An applied research model for the sport sciences. Sport Med [Internet]. Glazier PS. Game, set and match? Substantive issues and future directions in performance analysis.

Garganta J. Trends of tactical performance analysis in team sports: bridging the gap between research, training and competition. Rev do Porto Ciencias do Desporto. Decision support for evaluating player performance in rugby union. The reliability of video based time motion analysis. J Hum Mov Stud. The development of position-specific performance indicators in professional rugby union.

Predicting try scoring in super 14 rugby union—the development of a superior attacking team scoring system. Collision count in rugby union: a comparison of micro-technology and video analysis methods. Evaluation of goal kicking performance in international rugby union matches. J Sci Med Sport. Defining a safe player run-off zone around rugby union playing areas.

Background

Inj Prev [Internet]. Prospective information for pass decisional behavior in rugby union. Hum Mov Sci [Internet]. Spencer K, Brady H. Examining the effects of a variation to the ruck law in Rugby Union. J Hum Sport Exerc. Playing by the rules: a developmentally appropriate introduction to Rugby Union. Int J Sports Sci Coach. The effect of the law changes on time variables of the South African Currie Cup Tournament during and The effect of rule changes on match and ball in play time in rugby union.

Changes on the match profile of the South African Currie Cup tournament during and Changes in player characteristics and match activities in Bledisloe Cup rugby union from to The consequences of the introduction of professional playing status on game action variables in international northen hemisphere rugby union football. Eaves SJ, Hughes M. Patterns of play of international rugby union teams before and after the introduction of professional status. Scoring profiles and defense performance analysis in rugby union.

J Sports Sci [Internet] Routledge. Heart rate, blood lactate and kinematic data of elite colts under rugby union players during competition. Match play performance characteristics that predict post-match creatine kinase responses in professional rugby union players. Rugby game-related statistics that discriminate between winning and losing teams in IRB and super twelve close games. J Sport Sci Med.

The epidemiology of head injuries in English professional rugby union. Clin J Sport Med [Internet]. The effect of altitude and travel on rugby union performance: analysis of the super rugby competition. J Strength Cond Res. Skills associated with line breaks in elite rugby union. A retrospective analysis of the IRB statistics and video analysis of match play to explain the performance of four teams in the Rugby World Cup. Boddington M, Lambert M. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of scoring opportunities by South Africa in World Cup Rugby Offloads in rugby union: northern and southern hemisphere international teams.

Contact area playing styles of northern and southern hemisphere international rugby union teams. Perform anal sport IX. VI; The nature and circumstances of tackle injuries in rugby union. Injury risks associated with tackling in rugby union. Br J Sports Med. Effective defensive strategies at the ruck contest in rugby union.

Tackle characteristics and injury in a cross section of rugby union football. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in premier league soccer. Int J Sports Med. Eur J Sport Sci [Internet]. International Rugby Board. Laws of the game. In: Rugby union; Applied physiology and game analysis of rugby union. Sport med. The physical demands of elite English rugby union. Mechanisms of ACL injury in professional rugby union: a systematic video analysis of 36 cases. The dynamics of concussive head impacts in rugby and Australian rules football. Med Sci sports Exerc.

Schoeman R, Coetzee DF. Time-motion analysis: discriminating between winning and losing teams in professional rugby. Effective attacking strategies in rugby union. Risks associated with significant head impact events in elite rugby union. Brain Inj. Video analysis of concussion injury mechanism in under rugby.

Med Int. Differences in game statistics between winning and losing rugby teams in the six nations tournament. Contact skills predicting tackle-breaks in rugby union. Int J Sport Sci Coach. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union. Clin J Sport Med. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union. The physical demands of Super 14 rugby union.

J Sci Med Sport [Internet]. Time-motion analysis of professional rugby union players during match-play. Velocity and acceleration before contact in the tackle during rugby union matches. McLean DA. Analysis of the physical demands of international rugby union. J Sports Sci [Internet]. A new approach to quantifying physical demand in rugby union. Momentum and kinetic energy before the tackle in rugby union. The quantification of contacts with impact during professional rugby matches.

A comparison of performance indicators between the four South African teams and the winners of the Super 12 Rugby competition. What seperates top from bottom? Bishop L, Barnes A. Performance indicators that discriminate winning and losing in the knockout stages of the Rugby World. Quantitative analysis of rugby: factors associated with success. J Hum Mov Stud [Internet]. The relationship between changes in interstitial creatine kinase and game-related impacts in rugby union. Sprint patterns in rugby union players during competition. Positional tackle and collision rates in super rugby.

Time motion analysis of and super 12 rugby. Motion analyses of adolescent rugby union players: a comparison of training and game demands. J Strength Cond Res [Internet]. An analysis of the movements, both duration and field location, of 4 teams in the Rugby World Cup. Analysis of running and technical performance in substitute players in international male rugby union competition.


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Int J Sports Physiol Perform. Game analysis of the eight top ranked tertiary institution rugby teams in South Africa. Team performance indicators as a function of winning and losing in rugby union. Movement time as a predictor of success in the Rugby World Cup Tournament. Video analysis research in rugby union frequently includes what studies that identify key events for example, number of tackles in a match to how studies that describe key events for example, tackle technique relates to injury.

Furthermore, the scope of these studies range from the description of in-depth case studies [ 10 , 11 , 12 ] to the broad analysis of commercial data bases [ 13 , 14 , 15 ]; and from studies that apply sophisticated statistical modelling that accounts for context [ 16 , 17 , 18 ] to studies that only report on the frequencies of events [ 19 , 20 , 21 ]. The sizes and types of samples used in these studies also vary considerably, a similar finding to that in Association Football for a review: see Mackenzie and Cushion, [ 22 ].


  1. AMST A: Critical Studies of Sport;
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Due to the many different types of studies using video analyses in rugby, it is difficult to standardise the techniques. This makes it difficult to compare studies and translate the findings to a real-world setting. In response to this, a critical review of the literature on video analysis research in rugby union was performed.

The aim was to critically appraise the studies to determine how the findings can be used to inform practise. The purpose of a critical review is to show an extensive overview of the literature, as well as a critical evaluation of the quality of the literature [ 23 ]. It exceeds a narrative review of the studies by including a degree of analyses [ 23 ].

The methods of a systematic review were used in the literature search [ 24 , 25 ]. This was done to ensure that all the available relevant literature were included in the review [ 23 ]. In line with the purpose of the review, these questions were related to the methodology of the studies, namely, how the researchers used video analysis methods to collect data and answer specific research questions.

Polar questions were used to attempt to provide a level of objectivity to the evaluation. The time frame for the literature search was any study published before The search results from the three databases were merged, and any duplicates were removed. The inclusion criteria were as follows: the article needed to use video analysis to quantitatively study rugby union match footage and needed to be published, in English, in a peer-reviewed journal. Inclusion criteria were applied at the title, abstract and full-text level, and any article not meeting the criteria was omitted from the review.

Inter-rater reliability testing was conducted for this process of the literature search. A second author applied the inclusion criteria to the merged database at the title, abstract and full-text level. Where there were any disparities between the two databases, the reasons for including or excluding the relevant papers were discussed and the studies were either included or excluded from the final database.

The reference lists of the papers that met the inclusion criteria were checked, and any relevant papers were added to a separate database. Inclusion criteria were applied to this database, at abstract and full-text levels. The papers that met the criteria were merged into the original database. The outcome of this process was a total of 92 papers Fig. Data related to the aims, outcomes, variables investigated, sample sizes and type, and key findings of the studies were extracted from the identified papers.

The identified papers were categorised into three groups based on the outcomes of the paper; physical demands , performance and injury. Seventeen studies did not fall under these groups and were reviewed under the category other. Studies that identified the frequencies of specific variables were categorised as what studies. These were typically studies which used broad statistical analyses of large databases. Studies that identified the associations between different variables to describe how an event occurred were categorised as how studies.

Grouping the studies into these two categories allowed for more homogenous comparisons during the review process. Furthermore, classifying the studies into these two groups also allowed for different requirements for the different types of video analysis studies. Video analysis research involves the analysis of the frequencies or counts of specific variables, termed key performance indicators KPI [ 26 ].

It is also important that the samples are representative of the general rugby population, including multiple teams, seasons or levels of play, for the findings to be considered useful. The purpose of these studies is to understand how an outcome occurs. As rugby is a dynamic sport, any finding must provide or account for the context in which the finding occurred for it to be applicable [ 27 ]. This brings up the final requisite for the studies. With the view that video analysis research should be progressive, the research questions of how studies should be based on the findings of what studies, and the practical applications of the research, based on the findings of how studies Fig.

The questions were developed through the use of previous literature [ 22 ], and questions developed specifically for this review. The questions specifically addressed areas of criticism of performance analysis research [ 8 , 22 , 27 ]. The first set of questions evaluated the sample selected for the study, and the second the provision of definitions for the variables used in the analysis.

The third group of questions evaluated the inclusion of variables that provide context to the event analysed. A common criticism of video analysis is that it has a tendency towards reductionism [ 8 , 28 , 29 ]. If the actions identified and described in these studies are analysed in isolation, the context in which they occur can be lost. A number of approaches have been suggested on how to provide context [ 8 , 27 , 29 , 30 ], which all involve identifying patterns between the event identified in the study and specific task and environmental variables contextual variables related to the analysed event or match.

The questions used in this review evaluated the number of contextual variables included in studies. The final question identified whether or not the studies provided practical applications for their findings. The results of the critical evaluation were analysed using descriptive statistics, to describe and compare the frequency of occurrences. A total of 92 studies were included in the review. The papers were categorised into three groups i.

Seventeen papers did not fall into these categories; the outcomes of these papers included the development and comparisons of tools [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ], touchline safety [ 37 ], decision-making behaviours [ 38 ], and the effects of law changes [ 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 ], professionalism [ 44 , 45 , 46 ], and time [ 47 ] on various match characteristics. Fifty percent of the studies provided full definitions for the variables used in the analyses. Eighty-one percent of studies identified in this review provided practical applications for their findings.

The video analysis of match footage is a common tool used to provide researchers with objective, quantifiable data about match performance [ 7 ]. Although video analysis studies are often grouped together, there is a large disparity in the type of data gathered and the level of analysis conducted within these studies. The studies range from broad statistical analyses of commercial databases to more in-depth case studies [ 48 ].

As a result of this disparity, the findings of these studies have been challenged because of the questionable generalisability of the findings, and the reductionist nature of some of the analyses [ 22 , 27 , 29 , 30 ]. In response to this a critical review of video analysis research in rugby union was performed, appraising the samples used, the provision of definitions to the variables analysed, the inclusion of contextual variables in the analysis and the provision of practical applications for the findings.

There was a large range in the sample sizes of the studies identified in this review. Sample sizes range from three studies with samples of less than five matches [ 11 , 49 , 50 ], to four studies analysing over matches [ 5 , 14 , 51 , 52 ]. Two of the studies with samples of less than 5 matches [ 49 , 50 ] were not purely video analysis studies and involved taking blood samples of the players.

This may account for the small samples. There is, therefore, a need for a consensus on the sample size that would accurately reflect the rugby union population. Not all studies described the samples used in terms of the number of matches analysed. Interestingly, there was an association between the three outcome categories of studies identified in this review and the description of the sample. One third of the performance studies specifically analysed matches from the Rugby World Cup, a competition that only consists of 48 matches. Only one of these studies [ 55 ] analysed all 48 matches, in comparison with two studies with samples of five matches [ 56 , 57 ].

Furthermore, the effect of the change of time [ 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 ] and competition [ 58 , 59 ] on match characteristics questions the validity of analysing one-off tournaments and highlights the importance of including multiple seasons or competitions in samples to improve the generalisability of the results. However, 10 out of 21 performance studies included only one season or competition in their sample, and 8 studies were from one-off tournaments.

These findings question the generalisability of the samples, and subsequently the results. Although all 17 studies in this sub-category reported the number of matches analysed, with the exception of George et al. There is a large range in the number of events analysed in these studies, with some studies reporting samples of 20—30 events [ 11 , 12 , 60 ], and others with more than events [ 61 , 62 , 63 ].

However, as the frequency of different events differs within matches, the statistical power of a sample cannot simply be assessed by the number of events analysed. For example, at first glance, a study of events [ 62 ] would seem to have more statistical power than a study of events [ 54 ]. The first study analysed rucks and the second line breaks. In a match, there are approximately rucks [ 62 ], compared to an average of three line breaks per match [ 54 ]. The line breaks study, thus, coded matches to identify and analyse the line break events [ 54 ].

The study that analysed rucks, analysed rucks in 60 matches [ 62 ]. Therefore, although the one study analysed far fewer events than the other, it analysed more than twice as many matches. This provides a challenge when assessing the individual merits of each study.

Reporting sample size calculations may provide a more suitable basis to evaluate sample sizes [ 22 ]. Studies in the category physical demands aim to identify and describe the physical demands of playing a rugby union match. A study of the match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in football [ 64 ] showed that a sample size of at least 80 players would have sufficient statistical power to make meaningful inferences about the physical demands of match play.

There was a lack of clarity and transparency in the definitions of the variables used in the studies. As a result, it becomes difficult for other researchers to compare the results of these studies or replicate them [ 22 ]. What further compounds this problem is that definitions of variables differ. Although both studies are analysing tackles, they may not always be analysing the same event. Therefore, comparisons between the findings of these studies need to be interpreted with caution. This review highlights the need for a consensus among researchers using video analysis in rugby union, on the operational definitions of variables used in rugby research.

A number of approaches have been suggested on how to provide context to the KPIs; through the use of ecological system dynamics [ 8 , 27 ], through a constraints-based approach [ 29 ] or through temporal pattern analyses [ 7 ]. All of these approaches involve identifying patterns between the identified KPIs and specific task and environmental variables contextual variables related to the analysed event or match. The first group of variables provide context to the match that was analysed.

In an analysis of line breaks, den Hollander and colleagues found that teams created more line breaks when playing against weaker opposition, compared to equally ranked or stronger opposition [ 54 ]. Similarly, George and colleagues found that teams created more line breaks, missed fewer tackles and scored more points playing at home, compared to playing away [ 53 ].

Information regarding environmental conditions, like rainfall, can be difficult to gather retrospectively. Weather websites usually provide information about the amount of precipitation there was on the day of the match, but not the specific time or consistency of the rainfall. Overall, the inclusion of variables that give context to the match was poor.

Over half the studies reviewed did not include any match-related variables in their analysis, and only three studies included two of the three categories of match variables in their analyses. The results of studies that included variables that provide context to the event analysed were more positive. The majority of studies included more than three out of a possible four categories and only one study did not include any contextual variables [ 70 ]. The category of context included seemed to depend on the type of study. The majority of performance studies included the match or event outcome in their analysis, most of injury studies included variables which described the playing situation in their analysis, and every physical demands study included playing position in their analysis.

To be useful, KPIs need to relate to an outcome [ 30 ]. For example, comparing the frequencies of KPIs with successful and unsuccessful events, injury and non-injury events or different outcomes to a phase of play enables the researcher to determine if a variable is specifically related to the event or if it occurs in general. In this way, one outcome acts as a control for another outcome which also allows researchers to apply more sophisticated probability statistics [ 54 ]. The inclusion of outcome variables was less common in physical demands studies. Only three of the seven studies compared match or event outcomes, and only one of those studies was related to the distances players cover in a match.

Interestingly, this study found no differences in the physical movement patterns between winning and losing teams [ 71 ]. Studies have also shown differences in skill demands between playing positions [ 15 , 19 , 54 ]. Van Rooyen reported differences between the number of tackles made by forwards and backs, with back row forwards attempting and completing more tackles than any other positional group [ 15 ]. Positional differences have also been found in the number of line breaks made, with backline players more likely to complete line breaks, compared to forwards [ 19 , 54 ], and significant differences in the types of skills used by inside and outside backs in the build-up play leading to line breaks [ 54 ].

The category playing situation accounts for variables that describe the situation in which the event occurred. These can be variables that describe the interactions between teammates and opposition players. Examples of this are studies that analysed the interactions between attacking and defensive line shapes and movements when identifying key variables [ 17 , 54 , 62 , 72 ].

Similarly, some studies analysed the interactions between opposing players in contact [ 16 , 60 , 61 , 73 , 74 ]. As this category was specific to events, and physical demands studies mainly described the demands of entire matches and not events, only studies related to performance and injuries were reviewed in this category. The authors also acknowledge there are restrictions and limitations in including too many variables in an analysis.

Many journals have word count restrictions, which impacts on the number of variables a study can report on. A study may, thus, have initially included variables in their analysis, but not included them in the publication as the findings were insignificant. Authors may also divide their study up into multiple papers, and unless read together the context of their findings may be lost. A primary purpose of video analysis is to provide individuals involved in sports with objective and reliable information which can be used to inform practice [ 26 ].

For example, a study by Ortega and colleagues identified the differences between winning and losing teams in 58 Six Nations games [ 75 ]. They found that winning teams scored more points and lost fewer set-pieces, compared to losing teams [ 75 ]. As most teams set themselves out to out-score the opposition, as well as win all of their set-pieces, the practical applications offered by the study offers very little applicable information to coaches. However, from a research perspective, the study has identified three areas for future studies to investigate; how teams score points, win line-outs and win scrums.

A series of studies by Wheeler and colleagues [ 72 , 76 ], analysed the skills that led to tackle breaks, an outcome identified as an effective means of scoring points in rugby union [ 72 ]. The key skills associated with tackle breaks were fending and evasive manoeuvres. The aim of this paper was to provide a critical review of video analysis research in rugby union. The review identified a large disparity in the type of data gathered in the studies and the level of statistical analysis conducted within the studies. There was a large range in the sample sizes of the studies.

The review raised concerns over the generalisability of the findings used in the majority of the studies reviewed and recommends that researchers adopt the practice of sample size calculations to ensure that studies are adequately powered. Half of the studies appraised did not fully define the variables used in their analyses. There were also differing definitions of a variable between studies. These findings highlight the need for a consensus on the definitions of variables used in rugby union research so that the findings from different studies are more comparable i.

Finally, an aim of video analysis research is to provide information to coaches and practitioners to inform practice [ 26 ]. This information should be useful to a coach by not only answering the question of what happens in a match but also how it happens [ 77 ]. To assist in this process, it is suggested that researchers in this field start by developing research questions to identify the what , to provide novel findings used to develop the research questions to understand the how.

This process will allow researchers to provide coaches with practical information, based on the results of how studies, which is useful and applicable to develop practice. Positional demands of professional rugby. Eur J Sport Sci. Arnold P, Grice M.

SAGE Reference - Politics and Sport

The economic impact of rugby world cup In: London; World Rugby. World rugby: consolidated financial statement. Financial year ended 31 December S Afr J Sport Med. Tackle injuries in professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med [Internet]. Science and rugby union. J Sports Sci. Temporal pattern analysis and its applicability in sport: an explanation and exemplar data. The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports. Sport Med. Notational analysis of sport: systems for better coaching and performance in sport. Oxon: Psychology Press; Video analysis of the mechanisms of shoulder dislocation in four elite rugby players.

J Orthop Sci. Routines, rituals, and rugby: case study of a world class goal kicker. Sport Psychol [Internet]. Territorial gain dynamics regulates success in attacking sub-phases of team sports. Psychol Sport Exerc. The relationship between physical fitness and game behaviours in rugby union players. The importance of rugby game-related statistics to discriminate winners and losers at the elite level competitions in close and balanced games.

Int J Perform Anal Sport. A statistical analysis of tackling performance during international rugby union matches from Tackler characteristics associated with tackle performance in rugby union. Defensive strategies in rugby union. Percept Mot Skills. A retrospective evaluation of team performance indicators in rugby union. Diedrick E, van Rooyen MK. Line break situations in international rugby.

Laird P, Lorimer R. An examination of try scoring in rugby union: a review of international rugby statistics. J Chem Inf Model. Ruck frequency as a predictor of success in the rugby World Cup tournament. Mackenzie R, Cushion C. Performance analysis in football: a critical review and implications for future research. Grant MJ, Booth A. A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies.

Health Inf Libr J. How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study. Health Technol Assess Rockv. Improving grounded theory research in sport and exercise psychology: further reflections as a response to Mike weed. Psychol sport Exerc. Elsevier Ltd. Research methods for sports performance analysis. Oxon: Routledge;